Composting is a natural process and is responsible for the decomposition and transformation of organic matter through the activity and metabolism of living organisms, being an essential phenomenon in the cycle of nature. Plant residues and animal manure are the waste most used (naturally and industrially) in the production of compost, being bacteria, fungi and invertebrates, the most efficient organism in composting waste, turning them into nutrients for soil. When composting is done by insects, it is called entomocomposting, while if worms are used, this process is called vermicomposting, a magnificent soil improver.
This product improves substantially when it is offered to worms in a high humidity environment. Vermicompost provides a balance between nutrients, including humic and fulvic acids, micronutrients and trace elements, very necessary to stabilize the soil and nourish the plants. In addition, the vermicompost in liquid medium is a magnificent fighter against pests, even in foliar regime. Hence, vermiculture is considered as one of the best allies for crop management and environmental protection, regenerating the soil quickly after a fire.
The process begins with anaerobic bacteria, leading to fermentation, which increases the temperature, even reaching 70ºC. Later, when oxygen is increasingly present, the temperature drops, anaerobiosis slows down and even stops, disappearing anaerobic organisms, thermophiles, replaced by aerobes, mesophiles. Actinomycetes and aerobic fungi finish preparing the substrate, finishing the process of composting by microorganisms.
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