In autumn and winter, low temperatures, frost and excess humidity are elements that affect our crops. The cold is the worst enemy of our crops, it slows down the growth rate of plants and can sometimes kill them. It is for all this that it is very important to protect crops from the cold.
Frost on crops and crops
First of all, we must know what we are fighting against, there are different types of frosts that do not affect our crops and crops in the same way. We understand by frost the phenomenon that occurs when the temperature of the air mass near the ground is below 0 degrees and freezes the water or vapor that is in the air, depositing on the surfaces in the form of ice.
As we have said, not all frosts are the same and we can distinguish two types of frost based on the visual effects it causes, below we will tell you their differences.
This type of frost occurs when low temperatures, below 0 degrees, and humidity in the environment, above 60%, are combined. When these two factors are combined, the result is frost or ice on the plants.
We should not worry since this type of frost does not lead to the freezing of the plant, they are not harmful to the field because the ice acts as antifreeze and protects the internal part of the plants.
They are the frosts most feared by farmers. This type of frost also appears when the temperature drops below 0 degrees, but in this case the low humidity means that frost or ice does not form.
As there is not, as in the previous case, a layer of ice on the plants, they are left unprotected against the dry cold that acts directly on their molecular structure destroying internal tissues. This destruction of tissues produces a typical black color and is fatal for any type of culture.
How low temperatures affect plants
Low temperatures affect plants by making them go through the following processes:
- In the first place, the functional activity is weakened, reducing among other things the enzymatic actions, the respiratory and photosynthetic intensity and the speed at which they absorb in the water.
- There is an alteration in the biological balance of the plant and it stops photosynthesis, breathes, perspires, absorbs water etc …
- Finally, cell death occurs and tissues are destroyed.
Cold protection methods
Many vegetables have naturally developed resistance to cold, some through the concentration of cellular juices, and others through progressive hardening when winter arrives.
This does not happen with all vegetables, and most of them need protection from us. Two types of methods are distinguished to protect plants from cold, passive methods and active methods.
They are those indirect measures that we carry out to reduce damage. Some examples are:
- Choose the area and the time. Planting in places or times of risk is avoided.
- hedge with trees. Some trees such as pines can be used to cover the crop and protect it from the wind.
- Avoid excessive tillage of the soil. So that it does not store air at low temperatures as it would transmit less heat.
- Eliminate vegetation before the arrival of frost.
- Wrap trees with insulation.
Se aplican justo al comenzar las heladas y durante ellas. Son medidas dedicadas a evitar el enfriamiento, tanto de la superficie o directamente alterando la temperatura de la planta. Algunos métodos de protección activa son:
- Land flooding to increase thermal conductivity.
- Warming of the ground or of the atmosphere. This protection method involves a high cost as it has to incorporate stoves or heating means.
- Shower on leaves, application of water on the leaves of the crop before a frost.
Products to protect your crops from the cold
At Vermiorganic we have products that provide plants with greater resistance to stress due to low temperatures.
Humic acid and ecological humic acid:
It favors the assimilation of nutrients, increases the natural defenses of plants, makes plants more resistant to stress and contains a high content of Iron and Potassium.
If you want to know more about this product do not miss this entry in our blog “Humic Acid for your crops”
It is a biostimulator of the natural defenses of plants. It offers greater cellular penetration due to its low molecular weight and is both a preventive and curative fungicide.